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Phase transition of petroleum

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A research paper that uses Pixcavator:

The effect of the hydrocarbon–water interface structure on the behavior of an emulsion stabilized with dodecanephosphonic acid by Valeria Verdinelli, Paula V. Messina, Eduardo N. Schulz, Daniel Salinas, Bruno Vuano, Pablo C. Schulz, (Universidad Nacional del Sur e INQUISUR (CONICET), and Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahía Blanca, Argentina), published in Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 367 (2010) 1–6.

From the paper:

"We studied the phase transition of petroleum ether/water/n-dodecanephosphonic acid (DPA) from W/O to W/O/W emulsion when the neutralization degree (nd) of dodecanephosphonic acid (DPA) with NaOH was changed. The W/O/W emulsion is probably caused by a partition of acid molecules in the water droplets interface inside the oil droplets, and monosodium phosphonate molecules at the external interface of oil droplets. ... Fig. 7 shows the size (diameter) distribution of droplets as a function of the nd [neutralization degree], obtained from photomicrographs with the aid of image analysis software (Pixcavator IA)."

Microphotographs of three emulsions with different neutralization degrees.jpg

Other examples of image analysis